By Lauren R. Rosecan, M.D., Ph.D., F.A.C.S.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a deterioration or breakdown of the eye’s macula. The macula is a small area in the retina — the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye. The macula is the part of the retina that is responsible for your central vision, allowing you to see fine details clearly.
The macula makes up only a small part of the retina, yet it is much more sensitive to detail than the rest of the retina (called the peripheral retina). The macula is what allows you to thread a needle, read small print, and read street signs. The peripheral retina gives you side (or peripheral) vision. If someone is standing off to one side of your vision, your peripheral retina helps you know that person is there by allowing you to see their general shape.
Many older people develop macular degeneration as part of the body’s natural aging process. There are different kinds of macular problems, but the most common is age-related macular degeneration.
With macular degeneration, you may have symptoms such as blurriness, dark areas or distortion in your central vision, and perhaps permanent loss of your central vision. It usually does not affect your side, or peripheral vision. For example, with advanced macular degeneration, you could see the outline of a clock, yet may not be able to see the hands of the clock to tell what time it is.
Causes of macular degeneration include the formation of deposits called drusen under the retina, and in some cases, the growth of abnormal blood vessels under the retina. With or without treatment, macular degeneration alone almost never causes total blindness. People with more advanced cases of macular degeneration continue to have useful vision using their side, or peripheral vision. In many cases, macular degeneration’s impact on your vision can be minimal.
When macular degeneration does lead to loss of vision, it usually begins in just one eye, though it may affect the other eye later.
Dry, or atrophic, macular degeneration (also called non-neovascular macular degeneration) with drusen
Most people who have macular degeneration have the dry form. This condition is caused by aging and thinning of the tissues of the macula. Macular degeneration usually begins when tiny yellow or white pieces of fatty protein called drusen form under the retina. Eventually, the macula may become thinner and stop working properly.
With dry macular degeneration, vision loss is usually gradual. People who develop dry macular degeneration must carefully and constantly monitor their central vision. If you notice any changes in your vision, you should tell your ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.) right away, as the dry form can change into the more damaging form of macular degeneration called wet (exudative) macular degeneration. While there is no medication or treatment for dry macular degeneration, some people may benefit from a vitamin therapy regimen for dry macular degeneration.
Macular Degeneration Symptoms
Blurry distance and/or reading vision
Need for increasingly bright light to see up close
Colors appear less vivid or bright
Difficulty seeing when going from bright light to low light (such as entering a dimly lit room from the bright outdoors)
Trouble or inability to recognize people’s faces
Blank or blurry spot in your central vision
Dry macular degeneration can affect one or both eyes. You may not notice vision changes if only one eye is affected, as your unaffected eye will compensate for vision loss in the other eye.
Who Is at Risk for Macular Degeneration?
Recently much new information on macular degeneration has been discovered. Genetic changes appear to be responsible for approximately half the reason for individuals getting macular degeneration. Additionally, there are other risk factors for developing the disease. Many older people develop macular degeneration as part of the body’s natural aging process. One large study found that the risk of getting macular degeneration jumps from about 2 percent of middle-aged people in their 50s to nearly 30 percent in people over age 75.
Oxidative stress and macular degeneration
Our bodies constantly react with the oxygen in our environment. Over our lifetimes, as a result of this activity, our bodies produce tiny molecules called free radicals. These free radicals affect our cells, sometimes damaging them. This is called oxidative stress and is thought to play a major role in how macular degeneration develops. Approximately 1 in 3 Caucasians have genetic changes that make them more prone to damage from oxidative stress, which can lead to macular degeneration.
Macular degeneration in families
Heredity is another risk factor for macular degeneration. People who have a close family member with the disease have a greater chance of developing macular degeneration themselves.
Inflammation and macular degeneration
Some studies have shown that inflammation (swelling of the body’s tissues) may play a role in macular degeneration development. Inflammation is the way the body’s immune system fights off infection or other things it considers “invaders.” But an overactive immune system with its associated inflammation may be a risk factor for macular degeneration.
Macular Degeneration Treatment
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) showed that among people at high risk for developing late-stage, or wet, macular degeneration (such as those who have large amounts of drusen or who have significant vision loss in at least one eye), taking a dietary supplement of vitamin C, vitamin E, lutein and zeaxanthin, along with zinc, lowered the risk of macular degeneration progressing to advanced stages by at least 25 percent. The supplements did not appear to provide a benefit for people with minimal macular degeneration or people without evidence of the disease during the course of the study.
Following is the nutrient supplementation shown to be beneficial in lowering the risk of macular degeneration progressing to advanced stages:
• Vitamin C – 500 mg • Vitamin E – 400 IU
• Lutein – 10 mg • Zeaxanthin – 2 mg
• Zinc oxide – 80 mg • Copper (as cupric oxide) – 2 mg (to prevent copper deficiency, which may be associated with taking high amounts of zinc)
Another large study in women showed a benefit from taking folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12. Other studies have shown that eating dark leafy greens, and yellow, orange and other colorful fruits and vegetables, rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, may reduce your risk for developing macular degeneration.
These vitamins and minerals are recommended in specific daily amounts in addition to a healthy, balanced diet. Some people may not wish to take large doses of antioxidants or zinc because of medical reasons.
It is very important to remember that vitamin supplements are not a cure for macular degeneration, nor will they give you back vision that you may have already lost from the disease. However, specific amounts of these supplements do play a key role in helping some people at high risk for developing advanced (wet) AMD to maintain their vision, or slow down the progression of the disease.
Talk with your ophthalmologist to find out if you are at risk for developing advanced macular degeneration, and to learn if supplements are recommended for you.
Lauren R. Rosecan M.D., Ph.D., F.A.C.S.
The Retina Institute of Florida with four offices
conveniently located in Palm Beach and Martin Counties.
Toll Free Phone Number:
West Palm Beach
901 North Flagler Drive, 33401.
(561) 832-4411 Office. (561) 832-1591 Fax
Palm Beach Gardens
11382 Prosperity Farms Rd., #128, 33410.
(561) 627-7311 Office. (561) 627-6791 Fax
Stuart 618 East Ocean Blvd., #3, 34994.
(772) 287-7026 Office. (772) 220-4186 Fax
Boca Raton 1050 NW 15th Street, #114, 33486.
(561) 368-7723 Office. (561) 368-0093 Fax
What is Macular Degeneration?
By Lauren R. Rosecan, M.D., Ph.D., F.A.C.S.